Pentest Book

Common flaws

# Lack of rate limit
- Exploitation:
1. Request 2FA code and capture this request.
2. Repeat this request for 100–200 times and if there is no limitation set, that’s a rate limit issue.
3. At 2FA Code Verification page, try to brute-force for valid 2FA and see if there is any success.
4. You can also try to initiate, requesting OTPs at one side and brute-forcing at another side. Somewhere the OTP will match in middle and may give you a quick result.
# Rate limit bypass
# Limiting the flow rate
# Generated OTP code doesn’t change
# Rate-limit resetting when updating the code
# Bypassing the rate limit by changing the IP address
# Support for X-Forwarded-For turned on
# Bypass replacing part of the request from the session
# Bypass using the "Remember Me" functionality
# If 2FA is attached using a cookie, the cookie value must be unguessable
# If 2FA is attached to an IP address, you can try to replace your IP address
# Improper access control bug on the 2FA dialog page
# Insufficient censorship of personal data on the 2FA page
# Ignoring 2FA under certain circumstances.
# 2FA ignoring when recovering a password
# Ignoring 2FA when entering through a social network
# Ignoring 2FA in an older version of the application
# Ignoring 2FA in case of cross-platforming
# When disabling 2FA, the current code or password is not requested
# Previously created sessions remain valid after activation of 2FA
# Lack of Rate-limit in the user’s account (OTP is validated, but user's id not)
# Manipulation of API’s versions
# Improper Access Control in the backup codes request
# Response body manipulation
# HTTP Response Status Code Manipulation
# Code Leakage in Response
# Direct Request/Forceful Browsing
- Exploitation:
1. Normal flow: Login -> MFA -> Profile
2. Attack: Login -> MFA, instead input MFA navigate to Profile
# Cached OTP in Dynamic JS Files
# OTP Code Reusability

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Common flaws